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Diabetes Type 1

Key Vocabulary for Type 1 Diabetes Articles1 and 2: click to hear the words

Activities to verify and solidify key vocabulary: matching, multiple choice, crossword

Use this dictionary if necessary.

Listen to Article 1 and then answer the questions or listen and read along.

Article 1: Overview of Type 1 Diabetes

Tests for Article 1: multiple choice questions, fill in the blanks

Listen to Article 2 and then answer the questions or listen and read along.

 Article 2: Type 1 Diabetes Patient Information

Tests for Article 1: multiple choice questions, fill in the blanks

For self study:
  • verify you understand the key words for the articles.

  • try to answer the following conversation questions, speaking out loud.

- What are the main features of type 1 diabetes?
- What role does insulin play in the body?
- What are some of the problems with uncontrolled blood sugar?
- What information is important to tell the patient?
  • listen to the audio file for the disease state director and you may advance to the test questions.  Listen as many times as you need to answer the questions.

  • You can read the full articles below.

  • Go back and try answering the above conversation questions again


Read Article 1 and then answer the questions.


Article 1: Overview of Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disease. It is thought to be caused by an environmental trigger (possibly a virus or toxin but doctors aren't sure.) This trigger causes the immune system to attack beta cells in the pancreas. Beta cells produce insulin, and after the immune system damages enough beta cells, the body cannot produce sufficient insulin supplies.

Type 1 diabetes can present at any age but usually presents before the age of 20 and the symptoms are subtle. Some of the more common symptoms are frequent urination, unexplainable weight loss, hunger after meals, fatigue, blurred vision and dehydration complications. Filtering of glucose by the kidneys results in large amounts of water loss causing dehydration. Dehydration associated with hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) causes increased thirst and dry mouth, as well as increased skin, urinary tract, and vaginal infections.

Diagnosis is usually made by detection of abnormalities in blood glucose levels and by glucose or ketone bodies in the urine. Because of the high risks associated with hyperglycemia and the difficulties associated with therapy, it is suggested patients visit a diabetes counselor for regular monitoring, counseling and follow-up.

Tests for Article 1: multiple choice questions, fill in the blanks


Read Article 2 and then answer the questions.


Article 2: Type 1 Diabetes Information for the Patient 

Type 1 diabetes is a disease that destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. It is an autoimmune disease, which means the body's immune system is attacking itself. By attacking the insulin-producing cells, these cells are damaged and cannot produce enough insulin to supply the body.

In the body, insulin helps move sugar and other nutrients from the bloodstream into the cells of the body. Cells use sugar as energy for all of their functions. When the body destroys the beta cells nutrients, especially sugar, are not transported into the cells. The cells of the body starve and the blood sugar level rises. High blood sugar can cause dehydration, weight loss, and irreversible damage to small blood vessels in the kidney, eyes and heart.

When blood sugar is not controlled, patients are in danger of developing several serious diseases and complications.

- retinopathy - a disease that affects the eyes and vision
- kidney damage - which could lead to kidney failure and heart disease
- circulatory problems - possibly leading to nerve damage, infection, and amputation

Quality of life can be maintained by keeping blood sugar levels in target ranges. Management requires exercise, meal planning, and insulin therapy (insulin injections.) Careful monitoring of blood sugar levels, both fasting and after meals, is important. There are diabetes counselors who can help patients take control of their disease. These services are often covered by most insurance plans and can be a great benefit to patients.

Tests for Article 2: multiple choice questions, fill in the blanks

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